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Other balanced states may occur including when: an allele is favored at one developmental stage and is selected against at another (antagonistic pleiotropy); an allele is favored in one sex and selected against in another (sexual antagonism); an allele is favored when it is rare and selected against when it is common (negative frequency dependent selection).: Also called sex-chromatin body, which represents the inactivated X chromosome in the nucleus of somatic mammalian cells.Normally only seen in female cells and not in male cells.: The effects of a gene, which are beneficial early in life (i.e., increasing fitness) but deleterious later in life (no change in fitness after the reproductive age).Such genes will be maintained by selection, because by the time the gene exerts its damage, its bearers will already have had more offspring than other individuals.Contemporary species of Archeabacteria live in extreme conditions.The three major groups are halobacteria, sulphobacteria and methanogens. See : One of the kingdom level taxa proposed by Cavallier-Smith which consists of the most ancient unicellular eukaryotes with a nucleus and rod shaped chromosome but no mitochondria or plastid, thus believed to be the intermediate stage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.They belong to the Kingdom Protista and include the multicellular red (rhodophyte), green and brown (kelp) algae.
The five bases that form the nucleic acids are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), tymine (T) and uracil (U).: A major family of small lymphocytes that are responsible for antigen-specific humoral immunity as part of the adaptive immunity.
These include 1) carbohydrates and lipids, 2) alkaloids, 3) other nitrogen-containing compounds, 4) flavonoid phenolics and other phenolics, and 5) terpenoids.
See reviews: An alternation of sexual (haploid) and asexual (diploid) form of generations in a life cycle (example: aphids).
Death signals are conducted through a cytoplasmic motif (death domain - DD) - death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and caspase-8 that leads to the activation of caspase cascade and eventual death of the cell.: Colouration that warns the predators about poisonous or distasteful nature of the organism. Aposematic colouring of poisonous organisms is sometimes mimicked by others to gain advantage against predators (: A small member of the mustard family (kitchen cress).
It has a very small genome (130-140 Mbp), five chromosomes and contains almost no repetitive DNA.
Common secondary 3-dimensional structure of proteins in which the linear sequence of amino acids is folded into a spiral that is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl oxygen of each peptide bond.: A computing biology technique that attempts to identify genes without any knowledge of their function nor of the genetics of the organism.